Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2013


Since the early 19th century, deer populations across the nation have increased due to a variety of different anthropogenically driven environmental as well as political circumstances. In many places, these deer populations have exceeded both the ecological as well as social carrying capacity. Exceeding these capacities leads to significant negative effects on the ecosystem as well as the general public leading to overall biodiversity loss and an increase in deer-related diseases among other impacts. In our study, we quantified the local white-tailed deer density in the Town of Hamilton, New York in order to investigate whether local deer populations have reached unsustainable levels. If so, we hope to understand the ecological, medical, social, and economic impact of the overabundant deer population in the town and propose the most suitable and effective deer management strategies for the area. We conducted a roadside survey covering a total of 24 km2 out of 107 km2 (22.38%) of the town for four consecutive days before the start of hunting season during dusk for a total of 63 observation hours. A threshold at which deer become overabundant and were associated with significant, negative ecosystem impacts was chosen based on previous studies done in areas similar to the Town of Hamilton, NY. We predicted that land use changes in the past century as well as restricted hunting availability have led to an unsustainable deer population in the area. As predicted, at an average of 16.4 deer/km2, deer population levels in the area exceed our conservative threshold of 7.7 deer/km2 (t11 =3.32, p =0.00341), indicating that the local deer population is overabundant. In addition, we found that Lyme disease is the most significant deer related disease that afflicts humans in Madison County.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.