Document Type


Publication Date



Educational psychologists have investigated which learning strategies are most effective at promoting long term learning. The best strategies involve students generating knowledge through sustained engagement. Two of the most valuable strategies are distributing learning over time and testing oneself. Resource based assignments should require students to submit drafts for formative feedback to promote successive relearning. Students generate understanding through selecting what to pay attention to, organizing what they learn, and integrating it with what they already know. Learning is not easy, students need to experience desirable difficulties to truly learn.


The series of twelve columns on educational psychology for academic librarians is available in e-book form at



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.